Poor Miss Finch [with Biographical Introduction]
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Critics have speculated about its connection with religion, with Austin Dickinson, with poetry, with their own love for each other. Her words are the declarations of a lover, but such language is not unique to the letters to Gilbert. It appears in the correspondence with Fowler and Humphrey. As Carroll Smith-Rosenberg has illustrated in Disorderly Conduct: Visions of Gender in Victorian America , the passionate nature of female friendships is something the late 20th century was little prepared to understand.
Modern categories of sexual relations, finally, do not fit neatly with the verbal record of the 19th century. From her own housework as dutiful daughter, she had seen how secondary her own work became. In her observation of married women, her mother not excluded, she saw the failing health, the unmet demands, the absenting of self that was part of the husband-wife relationship. That remains to be discovered—too late—by the wife. Rather, that bond belongs to another relationship, one that clearly she broached with Gilbert.
Defined by an illuminating aim, it is particular to its holder, yet shared deeply with another. As Dickinson had predicted, their paths diverged, but the letters and poems continued. The letters grow more cryptic, aphorism defining the distance between them. The s marked a shift in her friendships. As her school friends married, she sought new companions. Defined by the written word, they divided between the known correspondent and the admired author.
No new source of companionship for Dickinson, her books were primary voices behind her own writing. Regardless of the reading endorsed by the master in the academy or the father in the house, Dickinson read widely among the contemporary authors on both sides of the Atlantic.
With a knowledge-bound sentence that suggested she knew more than she revealed, she claimed not to have read Whitman. Her contemporaries gave Dickinson a kind of currency for her own writing, but commanding equal ground were the Bible and Shakespeare.
Kinaesthesia and Touching Reality
Included in these epistolary conversations were her actual correspondents. Their number was growing. In two cases, the individuals were editors; later generations have wondered whether Dickinson saw Samuel Bowles and Josiah Holland as men who were likely to help her poetry into print.
Bowles was chief editor of the Springfield Republican; Holland joined him in those duties in With both men Dickinson forwarded a lively correspondence. She readily declared her love to him; yet, as readily declared that love to his wife, Mary.
In each she hoped to find an answering spirit, and from each she settled on different conclusions. Josiah Holland never elicited declarations of love. When she wrote to him, she wrote primarily to his wife. In contrast to the friends who married, Mary Holland became a sister she did not have to forfeit. These friendships were in their early moments in when Edward Dickinson took up residence in Washington as he entered what he hoped would be the first of many terms in Congress. In after one such visit, the sisters stopped in Philadelphia on their return to Amherst.
Staying with their Amherst friend Eliza Coleman, they likely attended church with her. The minister in the pulpit was Charles Wadsworth, renowned for his preaching and pastoral care. Dickinson found herself interested in both. The content of those letters is unknown. That Dickinson felt the need to send them under the covering hand of Holland suggests an intimacy critics have long puzzled over. As with Susan Dickinson, the question of relationship seems finally irreducible to familiar terms.
The only surviving letter written by Wadsworth to Dickinson dates from Believe me, be what it may, you have all my sympathy, and my constant, earnest prayers. Edward Dickinson did not win reelection and thus turned his attention to his Amherst residence after his defeat in November He also returned his family to the Homestead. Emily Dickinson had been born in that house; the Dickinsons had resided there for the first ten years of her life.
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It was not, however, a solitary house but increasingly became defined by its proximity to the house next door. Austin Dickinson and Susan Gilbert married in July They settled in the Evergreens, the house newly built down the path from the Homestead. For Dickinson, the next years were both powerful and difficult. Her letters reflect the centrality of friendship in her life.
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There were also the losses through marriage and the mirror of loss, departure from Amherst. Her approach forged a particular kind of connection. In these years, she turned increasingly to the cryptic style that came to define her writing. The letters are rich in aphorism and dense with allusion. She asks her reader to complete the connection her words only imply—to round out the context from which the allusion is taken, to take the part and imagine a whole. Through her letters, Dickinson reminds her correspondents that their broken worlds are not a mere chaos of fragments.
Behind the seeming fragments of her short statements lies the invitation to remember the world in which each correspondent shares a certain and rich knowledge with the other. They alone know the extent of their connections; the friendship has given them the experiences peculiar to the relation. At the same time that Dickinson was celebrating friendship, she was also limiting the amount of daily time she spent with other people. The visiting alone was so time-consuming as to be prohibitive in itself.
As she turned her attention to writing, she gradually eased out of the countless rounds of social calls. Sometime in she began organizing her poems into distinct groupings. By Dickinson had written more than poems. At the same time, she pursued an active correspondence with many individuals. It was focused and uninterrupted. Other callers would not intrude. Foremost, it meant an active engagement in the art of writing.
If Dickinson began her letters as a kind of literary apprenticeship, using them to hone her skills of expression, she turned practice into performance. The genre offered ample opportunity for the play of meaning. By the late s the poems as well as the letters begin to speak with their own distinct voice.ufn-web.com/wp-includes/52/logiciel-pour-localiser-un-portable-en-algerie.php
They shift from the early lush language of the s valentines to their signature economy of expression. The poems dated to already carry the familiar metric pattern of the hymn. Her poems followed both the cadence and the rhythm of the hymn form she adopted. This form was fertile ground for her poetic exploration.
Through its faithful predictability, she could play content off against form. While certain lines accord with their place in the hymn—either leading the reader to the next line or drawing a thought to its conclusion—the poems are as likely to upend the structure so that the expected moment of cadence includes the words that speak the greatest ambiguity. In the following poem, the hymn meter is respected until the last line. A poem built from biblical quotations, it undermines their certainty through both rhythm and image. In the first stanza Dickinson breaks lines one and three with her asides to the implied listener.
The poem is figured as a conversation about who enters Heaven.
She places the reader in a world of commodity with its brokers and discounts, its dividends and costs. The neat financial transaction ends on a note of incompleteness created by rhythm, sound, and definition. The final line is truncated to a single iamb, the final word ends with an open double s sound, and the word itself describes uncertainty:. By she had written nearly 1, poems. Her own stated ambitions are cryptic and contradictory. In contrast to joining the church, she joined the ranks of the writers, a potentially suspect group. Distrust, however, extended only to certain types.
Did she pursue the friendships with Bowles and Holland in the hope that these editors would help her poetry into print?
Her April letter to the well-known literary figure Thomas Wentworth Higginson certainly suggests a particular answer.